European Business Law Review

Volume 27 (2016)

Volume 27 (2016) / Issue 6

Suren Gomtsian, 'Exit in Non-Listed Firms: When and How to Use Share Transfer Restrictions?' (2016) 27 European Business Law Review, Issue 6, pp. 719–733


Share transfer restrictions are typical elements of governance in non-listed firms where members, given the locked nature of investments, are in strong dependence upon each other’s actions and contract for special share transfer clauses to ensure successful cooperation. First purchase rights, such as a right of first refusal and a right of first offer, and tag-along rights stipulate efficient investments by discouraging value-decreasing transfers of shares to third parties and reducing incentives for opportunistic renegotiation. Similar problems arising during the ordinary course of business are solved by different forms of put and call options, including their special buy/sellout modifications – Russian roulette clauses. The study of the best practices of contracting for share transfer restrictions in closely-held firms can help improving the practices of business organization.

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ISSN: 0959-6941
ID: EULR2016033