Volume 23 (2017)

Volume 23 (2017) / Issue 2

Enrico Carloni, Fabio Giglioni, 'Three Transparencies and the Persistence of Opacity in the Italian Government System' (2017) 23 European Public Law, Issue 2, pp. 285–299

transparency, freedom of information act, disclosure, information, right of information, access to information, privacy, Italian government, opacity, online information


In spite of an image as 'opaque' country, Italy has made significant efforts in recent years for affirming its way to transparency. To begin with 1990, Italian lawmakers approved many statutes aiming to make public authorities transparent, meaning open to a widespread control by citizens. This path, though, has not followed an unique and certain way, but has included different ideas of transparency, diverse tools and, finally, has brought about controversial results. The latest novelties with reference to the introduction of the so called 'Italian FOIA' are not out of this context, even if it is logical that a definitive assessment can not be given since its very recent approval. At the end the Italian government system recognizes three instruments: the right of access to documents, the total accessibility associated with the civic access tool and the new widespread civic access, better known as the 'Italian FOIA'. They are valued solutions whose application, though, could fail the final objective because of their scarce familiarity and feasibility.

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ISSN: 1354-3725
ID: EURO2017018