Journal of International Arbitration

Volume 35 (2018)

Volume 35 (2018) / Issue 1

Guilherme Rizzo Amaral, 'Burden of Proof and Adverse Inferences in International Arbitration: Proposal for an Inference Chart' (2018) 35 Journal of International Arbitration, Issue 1, pp. 1–30


This article addresses two subjects that are relevant to the finding of facts in international arbitration, namely, the burden of proof and the power of the arbitral tribunal to draw adverse inferences. Regarding the burden of proof, it shows that despite the existence of a general rule stating that the party making the allegation carries the burden to prove it, there are other factors – such as the applicable law to the merits or to the procedure – that may play a role in defining it. In circumstances where the party carrying the burden of proof is not able to discharge it without evidence that the opposing party possesses, the tribunal has the power to order the opposing party to produce said evidence. Non-compliance with the tribunal’s order calls for the drawing of an adverse inference, which is not a reversal of the burden of proof nor a lowering of the standard of evidence, but rather the filling of the gap left by the missing (non-produced) evidence by a complex gap-filler. This article explains the elements within such gap-filler and presents an original methodology (a step-by-step approach) for the drawing of adverse inferences, represented in an Inference Chart.

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ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2018001